Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the world and the second after Indonesia in terms of Muslim population. Pakistan is a relatively young state for South Asia. Its name is translated from Urdu as “land of the pure”, that is “land of Muslims.” Pakistan’s neighbors are Iran, Afghanistan, China and India. In the north of the country rise the Hindu Kush, Karakoram, and Hindu Raj mountain ranges. This is where Mount Chogori is located, the second highest on earth

  • after Everest/Chomolungma. Chogori is part of the Karakoram mountain range, its height is 8614 meters above sea level. In the west of the country stretches the low Iranian plateau, where, in addition to mountains, there are valleys and deserts. In the east of Pakistan lies the vast plain of the Indus river. In the south Pakistan meets the Arabian Sea. The former capital of Pakistan and the largest port city of Karachi is located here. The north-west of the country is part of the humid subtropical climate zone, while the rest of the territory is dominated by the tropical monsoon climate. In winter on the plains the temperature reaches +14 degrees, in summer up to +35. In the foothills, frosts are common in winter, and summer are hot, up to +42. In high mountain areas the average annual temperature is -16 degrees. The flora of Pakistan is heterogeneous and varies from region to region. Acacia, Himalayan cedar, oak, chestnut, mangrove forests, and date palms grow here. The fauna is represented by leopards, snow leopards, bears, foxes, wild goats, Persian gazelle and other species of mammals. Among the birds there are many eagles, vultures, peacocks and parrots. There are crocodiles in the Indus. In the 2nd century BC, the Harrapan civilization, one of the oldest in the world, emerged on the territory of the present Pakistan. Several decades after the Indian campaigns of Alexander the Great, a powerful Buddhist state was formed here - the Kushan kingdom. In the 8th century, Islam came to these lands. From the 8th century, local Muslim principalities became part of the Mongol Empire, and after its collapse, of the Timurid Empire. Three centuries later, one of the descendants of the Great Tamerlane, Zahiraddin Muhammad Babur, founded the Mughal Empire in the lands of modern Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and southeastern Afghanistan. After its collapse in the 18th century, Sikh uprisings broke out in Punjab, Sindh and Baluchistan, who created their own state. In the 19th century, the territory of modern Pakistan was captured by British troops and included in British India. At the beginning of the 20th century, when the movement for independence and the formation of Pakistan was already active there, a plague ep- 11 | SALAM PAKISTAN idemic broke out in these territories. The worst thing is that pneumonic plague was transmitted like influenza and caused a 100% mortality rate. More than 100 thousand people have died from the rapidly spreading deadly disease in Pakistan. It was possible to defeat the pandemic only by vaccinating people who were not yet sick. And then our fellow countryman, Baku resident, famous millionaire and philanthropist Haji Zeynalabdin Tagiyev, at his own expense, bought and sent more than 300 thousand plague vaccines to Pakistan, which played a major role in the victory over the deadly disease in Pakistan. In 1947, after Pakistan gained independence, this fact was included in the textbook and since then the Pakistani people consider Azerbaijan as a brotherly state. Pakistan fully supports Baku’s position regarding the Karabakh settlement. It is interesting that Pakistan is the only state in the world that does not recognize the Republic of Armenia because of its position on the Karabakh issue. In terms of population, Pakistan ranks fifth after China, India, the United States and Indonesia. Currently, about 240 million people live here, and the population is on a rise. The country has 6 sites included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Among them are the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore with marble palaces, mosaic mosques, waterfalls and decorative ponds, an architectural site created in the 17th century. The ancient city of Tatta near Lake Kinjhar, the Punjab fortress of the 16th century and the Lahore fortress of the 12th century, the ruins of Taxila (or Takhashila) - the capital of the ancient Gandhara. which is mentioned in the ancient Indian epic “Ramayana”. Pakistani cinema Lollywood is considered the second largest player in the film market of the South Asian region after Indian Bollywood. It is famous for release of lyrical melodramas. All film production in the country is located in Lahore and Karachi. During his recent visit to Azerbaijan, Nawaz Sharif, an ex-Prime Minister of Pakistan, said that Baku, called the “city of winds,” very much reminds many Pakistanis of their homeland. The Multani Caravanserai, located in the center of Baku, is a confirmation of the historical connection of our people. This caravanserai is named after the city of Multan. This is a very beautiful place, where for centuries people stayed and had a rest there, along the major Silk Way trade route. We should continue these traditions.

Esmiralda Mehdiyev Jurnalistlər Birliyinin Üzvü